It is crucial to precisely diagnose cancer as each stage and type of cancer require different treatment. There are many ways to diagnose cancer, including:
Below are the tests which are often required to determine the stage of cancer, though it should be noted that these tests are not required for all cancers.
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): ، particularly useful in identifying tumors of the extremities and brain.
- Computed Tomography (CT): useful to look at tumors that have spread to the lungs, abdomen and pelvic organs.
- Bone scan: detects areas of cancer spread in the bones.
- Bone marrow biopsy: detects the presence of cancer cells in the bone marrow.
- PET/CT scan: uses radio-labeled sugar to detect malignant tumors, as they take in more sugar and become “hot” on the scan.
- Sentinel lymph node biopsy: :a special procedure that is typically done in cases of sarcoma, breast cancer and melanoma to detect the presence of cancer cells in lymph nodes.